Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

AbstractCancer tumor progression, thus tuning ofIntra-cellular offer an opportunity

AbstractCancer is development of malignancy and known to be multi-factorial in origin. Radiation,Carcinogens, mutagens, smoking, improper diet, virus infections etc. are the few major agentsamong various causing cancer agents. The cancer cells produce various metabolites over andabove the optimum level of their requirements. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play veryimportant role in various intra-cellular activities including apoptotic signalling and in cancerCells increase level of ROS has been observed. The elevated ROS promote tumordevelopment and progression thus accelerate the development of malignancy. The tuning ofROS signalling in cancer cells or developing malignancy can avoid the built up of intra-cellular ROS. This could help to reduce the ROS-induced tumor progression, thus tuning ofIntra-cellular offer an opportunity for development of novel therapeutic strategies.Antioxidants are compounds having potential to sequester the excess ROS thus these mayPrevent early events in tumour development. Plants are natural factories of antioxidants andSynthesize varying level of antioxidants under different growing conditions. Further plants ofStressed regions (i.e. arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan) are rich in antioxidants. Plantsfrom our own state Rajasthan possess potential to be used to cure or treat the cancer anddevelop the preventive drugs to treat cancer in an AYUSH mode. The strategy involvescreening of plant extracts for anti-cancerous activity through metabolic profiling and invitro cell toxicity assay. Once suitable plant species in selected further detailed investigationcan be performed. The potential plant product can be further tested in vivo and drugs can bedeveloped. The plant-derived drugs are natural, safe and do not have risks of any side-effects.We hereby propose screening of native plant species of Rajasthan to search anti-cancerous activity and development of preventive drugs to treat cancer in AYUSH mode.Keywords:Introduction:One of the most common questions that a person has after being diagnosed with cancer is, “What did I do wrong?” or “Why me?” Doctors don’t know for sure what causes cancer in each case. When doctors can’t fully explain a cause, many people come up with their own ideas about why they have the disease. Cancer can start in many different places in the body. It can start in the lungs, the breast, the colon, or even in the blood. Cancers are alike in some ways, but each type of cancer is different in the way it grows and spreads. As we age, there is an increase in the number of possible cancer-causing mutations in our DNA. This makes age an important risk factor for cancer. Several viruses have also been linked to cancer such as: human papillomavirus (a cause of cervical cancer), hepatitis B and C (causes of liver cancer), and Epstein-Barr virus (a cause of some childhood cancers). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – and anything else that suppresses or weakens the immune system – inhibits the body’s ability to fight infections and increases the chance of developing cancer.Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.The National Health Profile 2013, released on Thursday, projects a 19 per cent increase in cancer among men, and a 23 per cent increase among women by 2020. Among men, the incidence of mouth cancers will increase the most; among women, the sharpest spike will be in the incidence of cancers of the gall bladderThe total number of all cancers in men will rise to 6, 22,203 for the year 2020, from 5, 22,164 for 2013. Despite the countrywide ban on gutkha, the incidence of mouth cancers will rise by a massive 51 per cent. Cancers of the brain, hypo pharynx and oesophagus will dip very marginally. All other cancers will be up, including a 48 per cent increase in the incidence of prostate cancers, 31% for liver cancers and 22% for lung cancers. The NHP projects the number of cases of cancers in women to be 6,98,725 in 2020, up from 5,64,619 for 2013. Gall bladder cancers will increase 45 per cent, and ovarian cancers 28 per cent. All cancers are projected to rise in women, including cervical and breast cancers, which will continue to be the two most common types.It is believed that cancer will be soon a global problem with its entire consecutive burden. Cancer therapy is, therefore, in the focus the world over. For the time being the treatment of any malignancy is based on surgery, radiotherapy and drug therapy. This complex approach is capable of curing approximately half of the cancer patients. While the other half of the affected individuals may have only prolonged survival or even no benefit at all from the treatment. While the results obtained by surgery and radiotherapy (which are loco regional interventions) are close to their maximum accomplishment, success of drug therapy, the only systemic approach is far from satisfactory. Despite many therapeutic advances in the understanding of the processes in carcinogenesis, overall mortality statistics are unlikely to change until, it is believed, and there is a reorientation of the concepts for the use of natural products as new chemo preventive agents. The effort to find anticancer agents from higher plants was launched by the US National Cancer institute (NCI) in 1957. So far plants have been proved to be a novel source of useful anticancer substances. Today many of the most useful and curative anticancer drugs are derived from natural products. However with of knowledge available concerning traditional medicine a new approach could be adopted which combine some or all of above methods 2. Many of the important and effective drugs derived from higher plants were Vinca alkaloids viz Vinblastine and Vincristine are derived from Catharanthus roseus are used to treat leukemia, bladder and testicular Cancer. Paclitaxol (Taxol TM) was originally isolated from Taxus brevifolia used in treatment of ovarian and breast cancers which was assumed to bind the tubulin subunit of microtubules and stabilizes the microtubule to normal disassembly. Historically plants with known therapeutics potential have long been used to cure a wide range of diseases. The use of potentially curative plants might be particularly significant for their uses as medicinal herbs. Thus the search for new drugs with better and cheaper substitutes from plant origin is a natural choice. In such situation it is need of time to have new drugs to stop proliferation of cancer from natural origin.Regional Plants with anti-cancer properties:1. Datura innoxia mill.Common name: DhaturaFamily: SolanaceaePresent investigation is focused on the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Datura metel against MCF-7 cell line. The study was facilitated by collecting the plant sample and subjected to methanol extraction using Soxh let apparatus. The anticancer activity of the extracted sample against MCF-7 cell line was examined by MTT assay.  The study confirms that the leaf extract of Datura metel has pronounced anticancer potential against MCF-7 cell lines while compared to that of the stem extract. The plant investigated possesses remarkable anticancer activity and hence isolation of the compound contributing to the activity may lead to develop at a novel and natural phytomedicine for the disease.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286004240_Anticancer_activity_of_Datura_metel_on_MCF-7_cell_line2. Drosera indica             Common name: SundewFamily: DroseraceaeThe aim of present in vitro studies was performed to examine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Drosera indica L.Different concentrations (5 – 640mcg/ml) of the ethanol (EEDI) and aqueous (AEDI) extracts of D.indica L were used in various antioxidant assay methods such as hydroxyl radicals, DPPH, super oxide radical scavenging activity, chelating ability of ferrous ion, nitric oxide radical inhibition, ABTS and reducing power. Ascorbic acid (AA) was used as the standard antioxidant for the free radical scavenging assays. Dalton’s Ascitic Lymphoma (DAL) and Ehrlich Ascitic Carcinoma (EAC) cell lines were used as the in vitro cancer models for the tryphan blue dye and LDH leakage assays, where 5 to 250mcg /ml of both EEDI and AEDI were tested.EEDI showed antioxidant activities with the minimum IC50 values of 34.8±0.43 mcg/ml in scavenging of hydroxyl radical and moreover AEDI showed minimum IC50 values of 94.51±0.84 mcg/ml in Fe(2+)chelating assay. EEDI on the reducing power assay and ABTS showed higher IC50 than standard AA. IC50 values of AEDI on Fe (2+) chelating assay and super oxide radical assay was lesser than IC50 value of AA. Both extracts at 250mcg/ml dose showed remarkable increase in the percentage of dead cancer cells (90% by EEDI and 86% by AEDI in DAL model and 89% by EEDI and 80% by AEDI in EAC model).It is concluded from this study that D.indica L exhibited excellent antioxidant activity against the different in vitro antioxidant models and anticancer activity against the two different cell lines tested.3. Azadirachta indicaCommon name: NeemFamily: MeliaceaeNeem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with a highly branched and stout, solid stem. Because of its tremendous therapeutic, domestic, agricultural and ethnomedicinal significance, and its proximity with human culture and civilization, neem has been called “the wonder tree” and “nature’s drug store.” All parts of this tree, particularly the leaves, bark, seed-oil and their purified products are widely used for treatment of cancer. Over 60 different types of biochemicals including terpenoids and steroids have been purified from this plant. Pre-clinical research work done during the last decade has fine-tuned our understanding of the anticancer properties of the crude and purified products from this plant. The anticancer properties of the plant have been studied largely in terms of its preventive, protective, tumor-suppressive, immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects against various types of cancer and their molecular mechanisms. This review aims at scanning scattered literature on “the anticancer biology of A. indica,” related toxicity problems and future perspectives. The cogent data on the anticancer biology of products from A. indicadeserve multi-institutional clinical trials as early as possible. The prospects of relatively cheaper cancer drugs could then be brighter, particularly for the under-privileged cancer patients of the world.4. Solanum nigrumCommon name: Black nightshadesFamily: SolanaceaeSolanum nigrum belongs to family: solanaceae. Commonly it is known as black night shade makoy, deadly night shade. It possesses medicinal properties like antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic properties, antiulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activity. Solanum nigrum is a potential herbal alternative as anticancer agent and one of active principles reported to be responsible for this action is Diosgenin. The fruit of Solanum nigrum methanolic extract were tested for its inhibitory effect on HeLa Cell Line. The percentage viability of cell line was carried out by using Trypan blue dye exclusion method. The cytotoxicity of Solanum nigrum on HeLa cell was evaluated by the SRB assay and MTT assay. Solanum nigrum methanolic extract has significant cytotoxicity effect on HeLa cell Line in concentration range between 10mg/ml to 0.0196 mg/ml by using SRB assay and study also showed that inhibitory action on HeLa cell line in concentration range between 10mg/ml to 0.0196 mg/ml by using MTT assay. From the performed assay, methanolic extract of these drug shows greater activity on HeLa cell line and little activity on Vero cell line and that mean Solanum nigrum can be used as anticancer activity .5. Cucurbita maximaCommon name: PumpkinFamily: CucurbitaceaeThe plant Cucurbita maxima (commonly known as pumpkin) belongs to family-Cucurbitaceae. The family is widely cultivated throughout the world for use as vegetable as well as medicine. Both of its fruits and the aerial parts are commonly consumed as vegetable. The plant has been used traditionally as medicine in many countries such as China, India, Yugoslavia, Brazil and America. Traditionally it is used in most countries as anti-diabetic, antitumor, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, immune modulator and antibacterial agents. Constituents of medicinal plants such as flavonoids and phenols play a significant role in cancer control through the regulation of genetic pathways without any side effect. The MTT assay of the compound isolated from isolated ethyl acetate fraction of Cucurbita maxima flowers shows that all concentration are having anticancer activity. The sample concentration of 1000 µg/ml, 500µ/ml, 250µg/ml, 125µg/ml and 62.5µg/ml showed 72.05µg/ml, 68.94µg/ml, 54.22µg/ml, 43.19µg/ml and 37.80µg/ml of CTC50 (212µg/ml) value against the human cancer HePG2 cell line respectively .Conclusion:In conclusion this article provides the knowledge about anticancer medicinal plants of Indian mainly in Rajasthan, which are used by people all over the world. Also it is of significance to exploit novel anticancer drugs from medicinal plants. From the present review, it can be concluded that herbal medicinal plants and its derivatives are active against different type of cancers like lymphomas, breast, ovarian, lung, liver, and stomach, prostate and testicular cancers. The cheap herbal drug treatment may highly be recommended to the rural and poor people to treat effectively the cancers of various type is an ideal choice. In an attempt of screening the traditional medicinal plants for anticancer activity the presence of several bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, etc. with specific anticancer activity against particular type of cancer, hence the huge space are available for development of strong anticancer agents from plant derivatives. However, the mechanism of the anticancer role has not yet been fully elucidated of many plants. Further research is needed to explore the molecular mechanism of herbal drugs.References:1) Sanjay Patel, Neerav Gheewala, Ashok Suthar, Anand Shah. In-vitro cytotoxicity activity of Solanum nigrum extracts against Hela Cell-line and Vero cell-line. International Journal of Pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2009; 1(1), 38-46.2) Raju Asirwatham, Arockiaswamy Josphin Maria Christina, Anita Murali. In-vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity studies on Drosera indica L. (Droseraceae), Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2013; 3(1):115-120.3) World Health Organisation (who): fight against cancer: strategies that prevent care and cure. Http://who.int/cancer/publicat/whocancerbrochure2007.fina lweb.pdf4) Murganatham N, Solomon S, Senthamilselvi MM. Anticancer activity of Cucurbita maxima flowers (Pumpkin) against human liver cancer. International Journal of pharma sciences. 2016; 6(1):1356-1359.5) Asirvatham R, Christina AJM. Drosera indica L: Potential effect on liver enzyme, lipid profile and hormone change in Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) bearing mice. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(2):69–73.6) Asirvatham R, Christina AJM. Anticancer activity of Drosera indica L., on Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) bearing mice. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(3).7) Biswas    K,    Chattopadhyay    I,    Banerjee    RK, Bandyopadhyay U.  Biological  activities And medicinal properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica).  Curr Sci 2002; 82:1336-45. 8) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286004240_Anticancer_activity_of_Datura_metel_on_MCF-7_cell_line

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