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As of fusion reactions, endothermic reactions, which absorbs energy

As the population rises and the resources available to us by the Earth keep being used up at a rapid rate, we find ourselves in a dire need to find a more cleaner and efficient energy source. Proposed long ago as the “Holy Grail” of infinite and limitless energy by scientists worldwide, it creates energy as two atoms join together. The hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium react to each other more efficiently as they undergo fusion creating bountiful energy without producing terrible waste. Nuclear fusion is the best way to create lots of energy and without causing trouble to the environment. Even though it’s the best energy source, we still can’t manage to produce it at a mass scale as its energy can’t be stored and worst its energy can’t be produced with our current technology, so how do we do it?-how do we know all this is possible?Why nuclear fusion?Energy can be released, not created, in a nuclear reaction if the total mass at the end of the reaction is less than the mass at the beginning of the reaction. There are two types of fusion reactions, endothermic reactions, which absorbs energy if the mass is greater than Fe; and exothermic reactions, which gives out energy if the mass is less than Fe. We focus on the exothermic reaction in nuclear fusion and it’s outstanding at how much energy can be produced, if one ton of deuterium could be consumed by fusion then it would create about 8.4 x 10^20 joules which is equivalent to 29 billion ton of coal as one ton of coal is 2.9 x 10^10 joules. With this much energy being produced the thought of running out of fuel is highly unlikely as deuterium naturally occurs in water, about 71% of the earth is covered by water. That’s a lot of energy without the repercussions of fuel depletion or pollution. PollutionThe burning of fossil fuels has the potential to harm air, water, and land quality but even with the odds stacked against it we use this energy source as it produces about 81% of the energy used in the U.S. The infamous greenhouse danger that fossil fuels pose is the abundance of CO2, which affects the atmosphere by trapping heat inside, causing the planet to become warmer known as Global Warming. As for Nuclear energy, we tend to think of the bombs dropped in Japan in 1945 or the meltdown of the Chernobyl reactor in 1986. It can’t be helped to think of such tragedies as nuclear energy played a key role in them but it was a nuclear fission reaction that caused the events. Nuclear power plants now are doing fission not fusion which does create nuclear waste that is dumped in nearby bodies of water affecting the environment. But nuclear fusion needs temperatures that are so hot that the hydrogen fuel becomes a plasma. In order for plasma to take place it needs to be in a very carefully controlled environment for fusion to happen. The dangers that come from nuclear fusion is neutron-induced radioactivity which are high energy neutrons that strike the walls of the reactor with so much energy that the walls can become radioactive. But this radioactivity doesn’t last long enough like nuclear fission waste does. The renewable energy sources don’t produce such pollution as does fossil fuels or nuclear fission but it does not create such abundant energy like nuclear fusion does.How do we do nuclear fusion? Seeing that nuclear fusion is the best contender by creating a lot of energy and very low pollution compared to other energy sources, why haven’t we exploited its infinite energy? We lack the proper technology to create usable energy for use but scientists do have two eco-friendly, kind of, ┬ámethods to be able to fuse deuterium and tritium together to make energy. The first is magnetic confinement which holds plasma fuel in place with magnets and then heats it up using a combination of microwaves, radio waves, and particles beams to fuse the atoms. The problem with this method, is that the project of building the largest fusion reactor is falling behind schedule while the cost just keeps rising ever more, about $22 billion. The second method is Inertial Confinement which fires lasers at a tiny gold can, which vaporizes and give off x-rays. Those x-rays hit a pellet of hydrogen fuel. The x-rays compress the fuel by heating turn into plasma which fuses with helium giving off energy and neutrons for a split second. Both methods seemed to work as both are credited with being able to produce, once, more energy than what was used in the beginning. But the possibilities that any method works are low as the continuous use that it’ll be subjected to do by having the facilities performing fusion constantly may not be able to withstand it. Also, some scientist argue that making a commercial power plant may pose to be greatly more difficult than being able to get fusion to work in the first place.

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