Consumer behaviors have been proven to
be driven by external and internal forces. The importance of a purchasing decision
is determined by purchasers, not by products. If consumers have experienced the
products, they will be able to make fast buying decisions, while other
consumers may need to acquire and digest more data to form evaluation before
jump into a decision. The extent of involvement represents the importance and the
joy in consuming the product, the amount of necessary information needed to close
a purchase. The extent of involvement in purchasing decisions may be seen as a sequence
ranging from habitual decisions (consumers are indifferent) to important
decisions that necessitate an extensive consideration. Consumers without a
concept about a product may be more concerned than someone already has
experienced it. Consumers often spend time pondering about products they
desire, evaluating and comparing them considerately, then stop and never
proceed to the acquisition stage. Regular, basic products such as mineral
water, milk do not necessitate consumers to exploit more information or consider
other options. Consumers simply buy them as soon as they recognize a need. The extent
of involvement in the buying decisions incline to decrease if the product’s
cost is relatively low; when consumers are exposed to less risky situations (financial
and timing) they are disappointed by buying the product.
Consumers automatically respond to
purchase decisions if those decisions are repetitive and based on constrained facts.
For instance, if a Cappuccino is always the beverage to be ordered, a habitual response
behavior is generated. Consumers may not enjoy trying new beverages because the
routine is to take a Cappuccino, and they simply do it.
Marketing professionals attempt to
encourage consumers to make impulse purchases in by creating unplanned shopping
situation. For example, while checking out at the convenient store , buyers maybe come across a newspaper with
a shocking news about the stock market and buy it immediately simply because they
want to read it. This kind of decision is a typical low-involved decision.
Although low-involved decisions aren’t always for impulse purchase, they can
Contrarily, high-involved choices are
riskier if they fail to meet expectation. This kind of decision is complicated
and expensive. An automotive, an apartment, or even a job could be realistic demonstrations.
These things are purchased occasionally but are appropriate and imperative to
the purchaser. When extended problem solving decisions are needed, a huge
amount of time and effort are spent to evaluate every facet of the product such
as functional attributes, prices, and warranty service.
Restricted problem solving is a mix of
repetitive and extended problem solving decisions. Buyers practice restricted
problem solving when they already possess some information and/or experience
about a particular product before buying it, but still look for more
information. For example, if a consumer has a pair of running shoes and her shoes
are torn. She needs a new one for daily workout. While she is acquainted with
running shoes, she would know particular features that are required for running
shoes since she bought and used her last one. She still spends time looking for
one whose shoes are decent for running because she does not want lose her
foothold and slip on the wet ground while working out. However, her research is
time-efficient. She may search online for some critical information, price,
favorite brands and jump into a decision relatively quickly. Or she may listen
to her personal trainer who has knowledge and experience in body fitness. She
somehow restrains the involvement in buying decision process.
Whereas products, such as chips or
toothpaste, which may be considered as low-involvement usually implement
commercial advertisements and sales promotions such as buy one get one, and try
to place them at convenient and visible spots to reach as many customers as
possible. While high-involvement products such as cars are displayed in the
private showroom for each brand, and approach customers through personal
Brand images are essentially important
disregarding the customer’s degree of buying involvement. For instance, buyers
may repeatedly buy a particular brand of toothpaste in one second right after they
see it on the shelves without consideration, but not be ready to switch the
brand. Favorite brands reduce search cost in terms of time and remove the
evaluation part since consumers know what they are taking.
When it comes to high-involved decisions
such as buying a car, buyers may engage in extended problem solving process
but, still, only evaluate some certain brands. For instance, in the 1970s, the
American car quality was very poor that people often said that a “not-Jap” car
(made in Japan) is crap”. America is now a leading nation in car production, however,
you get the idea. If a decision is hard to
make because of its riskiness in terms of money, a decent brand image is
certainly going to be exceptionally significant. Hence, the producers of high-involved
products cannot be contented with their current success of the brands.