Aveneu Park, Starling, Australia

MARINER 1 was a space craft which was like

MARINER 1 SOFTWARE
FAILURE

 

ABSTRACT

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The Mariner program was a mission program which was begun by American
space office NASA in relationship with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This
program dispatched size of automated interplanetary tests, from the year 1962
to 1973 it is intended to look at Mars, Venus and Mercury. This consolidate
first of planetary flyby, first planetary orbiter and the primary gravity help
cunning. Mariner 1 was the principal space create dispatched by the American
mariner program.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Mariner 1 was a one of the 1st spacecraft in American
Mariner program. It was dispatched on July twenty two, 1962 from Cape
Canaveral, on a mission in collecting variety of scientific data regarding
Venus during flyby. It was one of the first Mariner mission by America.

NASA engineers had been functioning on a new design
distinctively for going to Mars and Venus, but it wasn’t ready in time for the
1962 attempt, so Ranger spacecraft were used for Mariner 1 and its
backup, Mariner 2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

The Mariner 1 was a space craft which was like Mariner 2,
dispatched on 27 August 1962. It contains hexagonal base comprises of 1.04
meters crosswise over and 0.36 meters thickness, contained 6 magnesium body
lodging the electronic for the science innovative work, exchanging data, timing
and demeanor control and power control, information encoding, processing,
battery and battery charger and in addition state of mind control gas bottles
the rocket motor. On capital of base was a beanstalk pyramid formed pole on
which a logical investigations were mounted it brought the whole tallness of
the space art to 3.66 meters. Attached to either side of base were rectangular
sun oriented board wings with a whole traverse of 5.05 meters and width of .76
meters. Appended by an arm to the other side of base and drawing nearer
underneath rocket was a monster directional dish radio wire.

Mariner 1 control framework made of 2 sun based cell wings,
one is of 183 cm by 76 cm and other is of 152cm by 76 cm which made the
specialty straightforwardly to energized a 1000 watt hour shut silver – zinc
cell battery, which was to be worn before boards were conveyed when these
boards were not lit up by Sun and when they capacitate were substantial.

A power exchanging and sponsor administration gadget manages
the power outpouring. Interchanges contained a 3 Watt transmitter capable of
everlasting telemetry operation, the tremendous increase directional dish receiving
wire, a round and hollow omnidirectional reception apparatus at top most
instrument pole, and 2 guideline radio wires and one on the extraordinary of
either sun powered board which watched guidelines for midcourse moves and other
reason.

Impetus for midcourse moves was provided by anhydrous
hydrazine 225 N retro rocket. The hydrazine was set land utilizing nitrogen
tetroxide and aluminum oxide fuels and push bearing was under the control of
four fly vanes fitted beneath the push encase. State of mind control with one
degree pointing shortcoming was taken care of by arrangement of nitrogen gas
planes.

The Sun and Earth was utilized as an advertences for state
of mind adjustment. General planning control was worked by a computerized focal
PC framework and Sequencer. Warm controller was accomplished through
utilization of unconcerned reflecting and infiltrating surfaces, warm shields
and portable louvers.

 

Add up to logical, advancement, dispatch and stage costs for
Mariner arrangement of Space create was roughly $554 million.

Mariner 1 Lunch by NASA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAUSES FOR FAILURES

Mariner 1 Launch got aborted because of following failures

·       
A
fault of GE Mod -B guidance system speed beacon and
error from guidance program. The speed beacon fault occurred at T+93 seconds,
booster phase was still in advancement and did not made an immediate effect.

 

·       
 The guidance antenna on Atlas rendered poorly,
so the signal received by rocket became feeble and clattery, the rocket lost
its lock on ground instruction signal which supplied steering commands.

 

 

·       
Atlas
Agena vehicles used two different instruction system modification for Cape
Canaveral and Vandenberg launches, both were proved to be anxiety and suited
for several in-flight malfunctions this resulted in redesigning of instruction
system by General Electric in 1963.

 

·       
Improper
operation of Atlas airborne resulted in loss of rate of signals from vehicle
for a mentioned period. The airborne beacon used for getting the rate data was
in operative for 4 periods in the range from 1.5 to 61 seconds of time.

 

 

·       
 Omission of hyphen in computer coded instructions
in data editing program made transmission of incorrect instruction signals to
the spacecraft. This caused the computer to incorrectly accept the sweep
frequency of the ground receiver as it sought the vehicle beacon signal and
combined this data with the tracking data sent to remaining guidance for
computation.

 

·       
This caused the computer to swing
automatically into a series of unnecessary course corrections with erroneous
steering instructions which ended up with threw the spacecraft.

 

 

 

ANALYSIS OF FAILURES

Overbar Transcription Error

The disappointment had happened
while propelling the satellite because of an image was being translated by turn
in the determination for direction program. This was the real mistake of
scientific image in the program detail, because of missing overbar brought
about slamming of space make.

 

R?

 

Only 293 seconds after dispatch, a
range security officer had issued a damaging prematurely end when it get veered
off after an unscheduled yaw lift of move. The destruct summon was sent around
6 sec of before the partition, after that it couldn’t have been pulverized.

 

This defective use of direction
orders made controlling incomprehensible and there were coordinating entire
space create towards crash, in the North Atlantic transportation paths or in an
occupied territory. The post flight additionally came about that a missing
hyphen in the coded programming directions while information altering program
permitted transmission of the inaccurate direction signals. At the point when
airborne reference point was not working that time the programming code blunder
made PC acknowledge the breadth recurrence of the ground recipient as it looked
for the signal flag and furthermore consolidated that with a following
information which is sent to the direction calculation. This brought about
pointless course rectifications with an off base guiding charges.

 

The cost of Mariner 1 to 10 was
roughly $550 million which is because of committing error in missing hyphen in
programming code, it was a tremendous disappointment of NASA in propelling
Mariner 1 space make.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PREVENTION METHODS OF FAILURES

Once the Mariner 1 space
craft dispatched from the ground before it was get destroyed a safety command
was given by Range Safety officer 293 seconds after launch at 09:26:16 UT. The
booster had performed satisfactorily until an unscheduled yaw-lift maneuver was
detected by the range safety officer. Faulty application of the guidance
commands made steering impossible and were directing the spacecraft towards a
crash, possibly in the North Atlantic shipping lanes or in an inhabited area.
The destruct command was sent 6 seconds before separation, after which the
launch vehicle could not have been destroyed. The radio transponder continued
to transmit signals for 64 seconds after the destruct command had been sent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOLUTIONS USED FOR FAILURES

Because of blame of Mariner 1 On December 14, 1962,
Scientists chose to dispatch Mariner 2 which turned into the primary Robotic
space test to direct a lucky planetary experience. It prudent the information
on Venus air, attractive field, charged molecule condition, and mass likewise
estimations of interplanetary medium. Mariner 2 was on 27 August the dispatch
was fruitful and rocket entered a sunlight based circle on its way to the
Venus. It took 110 days travel with important data about the interplanetary
condition which incorporates presence of the sun based breeze and a surge of
charged particles exuding from the Sun. When Mariner 2 achieves Venus, one of
its sunlight based exhibit got fizzled and however it stayed sufficiently solid
to finish the logical mission.

 

Mariner 2 Launch by NASA

 

December 14, It go inside 21,564 miles of Venus and stayed
on in sun powered circle, which sends back the information what it had gathered
amid mission. It gauged the temperature at Venus at 300?F to 400?F, with
Sagan’s nursery impact forecast and for the most part its barometrical weight
is 20 times more noteworthy than on the Earth. Not at all like the Earth,
Mariner 2 had discovered Venus has no attractive field and no defensive trap
radiation belts, came about that planed is continually barraged by grandiose
beams. Its keep going transmission was on January third 1963 having finished
first mechanical investigation of different planets.

CONCLUSION

Mariner 1 is a first spacecraft by American Mariner program,
on a mission in collecting variety of scientific data about Venus during flyby.
Due to small mistake which is hyphen in the programming resulted in destruction
of entire mission of Mariner 1, so finally we concluded from this error is that
as a software engineer or a developer should not just double check the code. They
should triple check before starting any mission which mainly runs on the
instructions of program.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariner_1

2 https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/mariner-1

3 https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=MARIN1

4 https://www.wired.com/2009/07/dayintech_0722

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1)  
What
is Mariner program? Mention its uses

 

Mariner program was 10 mission
program conducted by American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet
Propulsion Laboratory.

 

Uses of mariner program

This
program helps to analyze Atmospheric structure, composition, density and
pressure were to be analyzed using techniques similar to Mariner Mars missions.

 

2)  
How
does Software Engineers can take care of Programming mistakes?

 

As a software engineers or a
programmers are responsible for entire mission to run or works, so they should
not just double check the software code instead they should triple check before
a start of any mission to work error free.

 

 

 

 

 

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