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SONET ring (4F BLSR). In linear way connection, with

SONET
(Synchronous Optical Network) is first developed and deployed on North America.
 It transfers multiple digital bit
streams and it is standardized multiplexing protocol. It works at physical
layer (layer 1) that supports
the high transmission rates (155 Mbps to 10 Gbps) needed in metro applications.
SONET network speeds currently range from OC-1 (51.84 Mbps) to OC-192 (9953.28
Mbps). SONET serves as a backbone transport for other technologies such as ATM and
Ethernet. Optical fiber signal Service
providers have offered SONET services for some time. SONET networks benefits include
high-speed network services that meet voice-transport requirements as well as
survivability and availability needs. Also, it allows precise rapid failover in
50 ms and fault detection. SONET signals being carried electronically using
coaxial caballing instead of fiber. It not necessarily carried on a fiber optic
line only. It is one of the TDM (Time division multiplexing) technologies and
it employs a single wavelength across a fiber. IN TDM, data is divided into channels
so that multiple channels can travel across a single fiber. We
can connect SONET node in point to point way, linear way , unidirectional
path-switched ring (UPSR) way, two-fiber bidirectional line-switched ring (2F
BLSR) way and four-fiber bidirectional line-switched ring (4F BLSR). In linear
way connection, with up to total 16 devices should be connected before and
after it. In UPSR way connection all traffic is homed to central location. In two-fiber
bidirectional line-switched ring way connection Traffic is local to each set of neighbors, and bandwidth is
reusable. For four-fiber bidirectional line-switched ring way connection
is same as two-fiber bidirectional line-switched ring way except with multiple
rings for diversity. The ANSI (American National Standards Institute) and
Telcordia standard T1.105 expounded the SOLAR. STS (Synchronous Transport
Signal) is a SONET unit of transmission, the STS-1 or, operating at 51.84 Mbps. SONAT is procedure of
communication by itself as well SONAT is one kind of transformer like SONAT
known as a synchronous transport signal. SONET is a one kind of multiplexing
way for different signals. Sometime, SONET describe a technology which is
useful to carry signals in different capacities through flexible and optical
hierarchy.  Make
an integrated summary (~350 Words) of SDH (12 points)  Answer: SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) is developed later (means
SONET developed first) and deployed on rest of the world except North America. Today,
SDH and SONET are used widely and SDH is greater worldwide market penetration
than SONET. SONET and SDH have same qualities as, they communicate through circuit
mode from different sources. SDH signals transmitted via satellite paths or
sometimes via radio link and its transmitted quickly when mobile network is on.
The SDH standard uses the synchronous transport module (STM) frame format. It
transfers multiple digital bit streams and it is standardized multiplexing
protocol. It works at physical layer. With a few exceptions, we can say that
SDH can be a superset of SONET. The ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards
Institute) was clarified The SDH standard and is formalized as ITU (International
Telecommunications Union) standards G.707, G.783, G.784, and G.803. It is one of the TDM (Time division
multiplexing) technologies. TDM employs a single wavelength across a fiber.
Data is divided into channels so that multiple channels can travel across a
single fiber. The time is taken by the STM-1 frame for transmission is exactly
125 µs.  SDH has a different ability
of administration which ae setup administration and second one is safety and
access administration as well execution administration and last one is occasion
or the caution administration. From this video we easily can compare of both
SDH and SONAT both have similar features. The use of optical fibers in physical
medium in SDH networks and reason behind that their ability t to transmit at
very high speeds.The use of SDH is a to take organization issues and supplant
plesiochronous digital hierarchy framework for information trade and mass
phone. In addition, signals mode fibers mostly used medium for 1310 as well
1550 nm optical windows. SDH is known as universe standard and it’s exploited
for its rapid information for exchange of the media transmission as well-advanced
signs. Synchronous digital hierarchy is a standard form of technology. The STM
frame, which is define by the pointer by the row four for the phase alignment and
this alignment is indicated. Both SDH and SONAT have disadvantages over weight
advantages.  

 

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